Sunday, February 18, 2018

~ば~ほど

The grammar pattern [verb ば ... ほど] can be used to express the Japanese equivalent of the English "the more... the more..." I.e., "the more things change, the more they stay the same."

運動すれば(運動)するほど、健康になれるし、やせられるから、運動は一石二鳥ですね。
The more you exercise, the healthier you can become, and since you can lose weight, exercise kills two birds with one stone.

リーさんは食べれば食べるほど、やせるんだよね。
The more Lee-san eats, the thinner he becomes.

親が立派であればあるほど、子供はプレッシャを感じてしまうようだ。
It seems like the more prominent the parents are, the more their kids feel pressure.

アヤトに見れば見るほど、かっこういいなぁ。
The more I look at Ayato, the more handsome he becomes.

さて

The word さて can be used at the beginning of a sentence to signal a new topic, to ask a question about the info that was provided, or to state that the speaker is leaving. It often translates as "well now" or "now then", and it's not used in casual speech.

さて、もう遅いですから、今日はこれで失礼します。
Now then, since it's already late, I'll be leaving for today.

リーさんはナイフを持って、アリスは斧を持つんだ。さて、誰が勝つと思う?
Lee-san has a knife, and Alice has an axe. Now then, who do you think will win?

今、観たビデオから、文楽や歌舞伎は江戸時代に一般の人々にも広がったということが分かります。さて、次に紹介するのは、これも江戸時代に一般の人にも楽しまれるようになった茶道です。
Now, from the video we watched, we see that during the Edo period, bunraku and kabuki even spread to the general public. Now then, our next presentation is on the tea ceremony, which also became something that was enjoyed by the general public during the Edo period.

この本はピンクで、その本は緑です。さて、どちら赤ちゃんが好きですか?
This book is pink, and that one is green. Now then, which one will the baby prefer?

Saturday, February 17, 2018

通りに

The word 通り can be directly modified by a verb or noun to express something like "the way", or "as X indicates." It can also be directly attached to nouns as a suffix, in which case it's read as どおり. Depending on the situation, it can mean things such as "according to", "following", or "like."

母が教えてくれた通りに作ったら、おいしいケーキができた。
If I made it the way my mom taught me, I had delicious cake.

本の指示通りに、完璧な彫刻を作ったんだわ。
Following the book's instructions, I made a perfect sculpture.

日本のファミリーレストランの店員は、みんなマニュアルの通りに話すから、ロボットみたいだ。
Employees at Japanese family restaurants can sound like robots because of the way they all speak manually.

リーさんは通りに踊ったら、先輩に笑われるんだよ。
If you dance the way Lee-san does, you'll get laughed at by senpai.

すると

Two sentences can be joined by すると to express certain relations to one another:

1. The action in Sentence 1 causes what is said in Sentence 2
2. The action in Sentence 1 leads to the discovery of what's said in Sentence 2
3. From the info implied in Sentence 1, the speaker confirms that Sentence 2 is the case

It can be read as something like "then" or "thereupon", which makes sense in almost all of the instances I've seen it (since it's generally very common).

このアイコンをクリックして下さい。すると、コンピュータの画面の文字が大きくなります。
Please click on this icon. Then, the text on the computer screen will become larger.

メアリーは部屋に入ってすると、そこで小さいの男の子を見つけたんだ。
Upon entering the room, Mary found a small little boy there.

A:田中さんは、明日の会議に出られないそうですよ。
B:すると、誰か他の人が出なくてはいけないということですね。
A: I hear that Tanaka-san can't attend tomorrow's meeting.
B: Then, that means someone else will have to attend.

リーさんはドアを開けてすると、子猫とねずみが遊んでいるのが見える。
Upon opening the door, Lee-san saw the kitten and the mouse playing.

Friday, February 16, 2018

によって

The phrase (こと) によって can be used to indicate the cause, the means, or the agent in passive sentences, according to Tobira. In other words, it provides a meaning of "due to", "because of", "by means of", and similar equivalent phrases.

ハイブリッドの車が増えたことによって、町の空気がきれいになってきました。
Due to the increase in hybrid cars, the atmosphere in towns has grown to become cleaner.

インタネットで調べることによって世界中で今起こっていることを知ることが出来る。
By searching on the internet, you can be aware of all the events occurring throughout the world right now.

言葉は、話したり読んだり書いたりすることによって学んでいくのです。
You can grow to learn a language by doing things like speaking, reading, and writing.

万有引力の法則はニュートンによって発見されました。
The law of universal gravitation was discovered by Newton.

関係がある

Noun 1 は + Noun 2 と/に 関係がある can be used to express that Noun 1 is related to or has something to do with Noun 2. Either と or に can be used after Noun 2. In relative clauses, の is often used in place of が in the がある portion.

授業に関係のない質問はしないようにしましょう。
Let's try to make sure that we don't ask questions that are not related to class.

この間見つけたフォンはマリアの蒸発に関係があると思う。
I think the phone I found the other day has something to do with Maria's disappearance.

そのトピックに関係のある本はこの列にありますよ。
Books related to that topic are in this row.

大学の図書館と関係のある知らせ郵便ポストで見つかれるんよ。
Information relating to the university library can be found in your mailbox.

Saturday, February 10, 2018

わけじゃない

The structure (という) わけじゃない (or ではない) can be used to deny a statement, with meanings like "It doesn't mean that" or "it's not that..."

漢字が苦手だと言っても、全然書けないわけではない。
Even if you say you're bad with kanji, that doesn't mean that you'll never be able to write them.

試験の点がよければいい成績が取れるというわけではない。宿題やプロジェクトも大切だ。
Doing well on tests doesn't mean you'll be able to get a good grade. Homework and projects are important too.

この料理はまずいわけではないけど、油が多いから、あまり食べられない。
It's not that this cooking is bad, but since there's a lot of oil, I can't eat that much.

あの人が嫌いなわけではないんですが、デートしたいとは思いません。
It's not that I hate that person, but I don't think I want to go on a date with them.